27 Dec 2019
Framing any climate action needs to take stock of the social contract in a community. Given the diversity in risk, resilience, preparedness, and levels of development, different communities will likely be affected non-homogeneously (Denton, 2002). Intersecting social stressors like class, caste, age, and gender, will likely become starker against the onslaught of disturbances in the form of air pollution, floods, and droughts (Rao and Hans, 2018).
10 Dec 2019
India's transport demand has grown from a total of 5.3 million in 1981 to 230 million in 2016, with two-wheelers and cars having 73% and 14% share, respectively. Commercial vehicles though constitute only about 5% of the total fleet, contribute to nearly 80% of total PM emissions. Phase-wise implementation of fleet modernization (transforming pre BS-IV commercial vehicles to BS-VI) would lead to a 40-80% reduction in PM and NOx emissions from the sector by 2025. The total number of avoided mortality from attributable to PM5 reduction from fleet modernization between 2020 and 2040 is estimated to be more than 500,000.
05 Dec 2019
| Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland
| Tampere University, Finland
While biofuels have been discussed as one of the ways to reduce air pollution, changing the process of bio-diesel production is needed to reduce tailpipe emissions of nanoparticles. These are lesser known pollutants even more harmful than PM2.5 and PM10.
03 Dec 2019
Anthropogenic activities like (i) agriculture fertilisers, (ii) coastal pisciculture, (i) sewage discharge, (iv) industrial activity, (v) burning fossil fuels and (vi) effluents from ports increase nutrients in surface water and seas. Nitrate pollution is largely caused by agriculture run-off, discharge from industry and manure or sewage. Phosphate pollution is tied to improper treatment of detergents in wastewater and from agro-fertilisers. These land-based pollutants make their way to coastal waters through networks of rivers and streams and cause nutrient pollution in the marine environment.
Discussion Paper on Clean Development Mechanism as Catalyst for Sustainable Development Mechanism Under Article 6.4
27 Nov 2019
| Ms Ritu Ahuja
Our analysis highlights the necessity of undertaking a full transition of unused certified emission reductions (CERs) from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in order to create a trust in the international processes and the market mechanisms.
27 Nov 2019
| Ms Ritu Ahuja
Article 6 of the Paris Agreement focuses on a framework for countries to voluntarily cooperate using market and non-market based approaches to raise ambition, thus providing an opening for carbon markets in the post-2020 regime.
22 Nov 2019
The idea of transparency for reporting and reviewing information on climate policies and measures taken by Parties has emerged as one of the key elements gaining attention and weight under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The transparency framework has been evolving in detail and complexity aimed at maximizing mutual confidence between Parties while ensuring that the Parties are not unduly stretched beyond their capacities.
08 Nov 2019
Climate change has a strong influence on the precipitation over the Himalayas as well as melting response of glaciers or snow cover in Himalayas. This, in turn, affects the runoff pattern of rivers draining from the glaciated catchments of Himalayas. Three major river catchments along with their several tributaries originating from Indian as well as Nepal part of Himalayas receive a significant contribution from the Himalayan cryosphere, especially during the non-rainfall lean period of the year.
04 Oct 2019
An overview of the emerging transition of the Indian power sector to higher share of renewable energy
03 Oct 2019
The paper looks at the need for Indian industry to transition to resource efficient, sustainable and low-carbon production, especially in hard-to-abate sectors