Developing strategies for control of air pollution in India and its cities
Air pollution is a major challenge faced globally, with detrimental environmental, health and economic impacts. India is at the forefront of the global struggle against air pollution as most of the cities where air quality is monitored show violation of prescribed ambient air quality standards. Various research studies have shown that not only major cities but the whole regions like Indo-Gangetic plains are under the influence of high air pollution. This has a significant impact on human health, agricultural productivity, and hence over the economy. Evidently, the interventions are required at both regional and city scales for control of pollution.
The main objective of the project is to help improve air quality in India. The project will include technical assistance to the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) on its landmark National Clean Air Action Programme (NCAP) including through assistance for three Indian cities (and associated states and state pollution control boards) over a period of 2-3 years. This could cover the following activities: at national and city scales are:
- Development of a database of national-level multi-pollutant emission inventories
- Conduct a series of roundtables to discuss the sectoral air pollution mitigation measures at the national scale
City scale (at selected cities)
- Drafting a clean air action plan based on source apportionment study, intervention analysis to assess different control strategies in three cities (Patna, Surat, and Bangalore)
- Drafting an emergency action plan based on source apportionment of high episodic events in three cities (Patna, Surat, and Bangalore)
- Conducting cost-benefit analysis of air pollution control options for Delhi
- Conducting training programs for SPCB and other local authorities demonstrating the use of air quality modeling techniques for air quality management among Indian cities,
- Communicating air quality information at the city level to enhance public awareness.
Supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies, project objectives will be achieved through several activities, which are planned to executed by various agencies like TERI, Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation and local partners ADRI, Urban emissions, Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP) and WRI.
TERI has identified three key measures to significantly reduce air pollution at the national level:
Fleet Modernization: Phase-wise implementation of fleet modernization (transforming pre BS-IV commercial vehicles to BS-VI) would lead to a 40-80% reduction in PM and NOx emissions from the sector by 2025.
Crop Residue Management: Residents of different cities (probably villages too) of India breathe some of the least healthy air of the globe. During 2017, about 76.8% of the population of India was exposed to annual population-weighted mean PM2·5 greater than the limit recommended by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
Clean Fuel for Cooking: The publication aims to analyse and estimate the financial support that may be required to encourage Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) consumers to switch to LPG
Emission control in thermal power stations: This publication aims to present an overview of new environmental norms for thermal power plants, their implementation status, factors coming in way of their implementation, as well as suggested measures, wherever possible.