South Asia accounts for 37% of the world's population without access to electricity. Such a situation continues to exist despite several initiatives and policies to support rural electrification efforts by the respective country governments including use of renewable energy technologies. While conventional grid extension has been the predominant mode of electrification in the region, the countries have also extensively used solar photovoltaic (PV) technology for energy access.
Response to discussion on: "An integrated statistical approach for evaluating the exceedance of criteria pollutants in the ambient air of megacity Delhi", Atmospheric Environment
Pragati Sharma, Prateek Sharma, Jain S, Kumar P
Like many countries, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, in India evaluates exceedences of air pollution levels against the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). One of the mandatory requirements for NAAQS compliance is that the probability of non-exceedence should be at least 0.98, meaning that the formulated framework of NAAQS is essentially statistical.
Response surface optimization of poly (3-hydroxyalkanoic acid) production using oleic acid as an alternative carbon source by seudomonas aeruginosa
Dalala J, Sarmab P M, Mandalb A K, Lal B
This study aims at optimizing medium-chain-length Polyhydroxyalkanoate (MCL-PHA) production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 13003 culture using the statistical design techniques of 2-level factorial design and RSM. Two-level factorial design with eight variables viz. oleic acid, (NH4)2POM4, incubation time, trace metal solution, MgCl2, K2HPO4, KH2PO4 and inoculum was performed to screen for nutrients that were significantly affecting MCL-PHA production.
Kannan D C, Pattarkine V M
One of the crucial steps in generating biofuel from algae is the separation and recovery of lipids from algal biomass. These lipids are eventually converted into liquid biofuel after processing and refining. This chapter presents an overview of extraction techniques and some of the challenges in applying these techniques to industrial-scale algal biofuel production. Lipids are well-encased inside algal cell walls. The aqueous environment of the cells makes it even more difficult to extract the lipids. Hexane extraction is presently the most economical method.
Reconstruction and visualization of carbohydrate, N-glycosylation pathways in Pichia pastoris CBS7435 using computational and system biology approaches
Srivastava A, Somvanshi P, Mishra B N
Pichia pastoris is an efficient expression system for production of recombinant proteins. To understand its physiology for building novel applications it is important to understand and reconstruct its metabolic network. The metabolic reconstruction approach connects genotype with phenotype. Here, we have attempted to reconstruct carbohydrate metabolism pathways responsible for high biomass density and N-glycosylation pathways involved in the post translational modification of proteins of P. pastoris CBS7435.
Pandey S, Hooda R, Mishra A
The mercury-bearing lamps, towards the end-of-life, pose significant hazard potential due to the likely release of mercury. Though, these fluorescent lamps (FLs) release relatively less quantity of mercury when disposed as compared to other mercury-based products, they are still a concern due to the large and further growing number of FLs in service, particularly, in the domestic sector and their fragile nature.
Right Pricing is key to water sector reforms as it would send correct signals for its use. However, water is generally viewed as a social good rather than an economic good and hence pricing of water is also done accordingly. This has led to over-exploitation of water resources which has bearing for sustainability. Already many states are water stressed and a large section of the population does not have access to drinking water.
Sundaray S, Kandpal TC
Results of a preliminary techno-economic appraisal of solar thermal power generation at three locations in India are presented. The study uses System Advisor Model developed by NREL, USA. The results of the study provide useful insight into (a) selecting appropriate reference direct normal irradiance for design of solar thermal power plants, (b) identifying suitable combinations of solar multiple and hours of thermal energy storage and (c) cost reduction potential. The parabolic trough technology is used for exemplifying the procedure for this purpose.
Raman P, J Murali J, Sakthivadivel D, Vigneswaran V S
Many cook stove programs implemented in South Asia and Africa were aimed at reducing fuel wood consumption and pollutants through the use of improved cook stoves. The research work presented in this paper is focused on evaluation of improved cook stoves with respect to thermal efficiency and emission levels. Since the type of biomass fuel varies in different geographical regions, the improved cook stoves must be compatible to use different types of fuel. The present research work is aimed at evaluating three types of forced draft cook stove with two types of biomass fuels.
Pandey B, Joshi P K, Seto K C
India is a rapidly urbanizing country and has experienced profound changes in the spatial structure of urban areas. This study endeavours to illuminate the process of urbanization in India using Defence Meteorological Satellites Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) night time lights (NTLs) and SPOT vegetation (VGT) dataset for the period 1998-2008. Satellite imagery of NTLs provides an efficient way to map urban areas at global and national scales.