Preliminary assessment of heavy metals intake via food in CKDu affected Uddanam region of Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India
The present study aimed to assess metal/heavy metal intake by the population via food environment of the Uddanam region, a hotspot for chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology (CKDu) in India. The food samples included rice/paddy, marine/freshwater fish, green gram/black gram (whole), and green leafy vegetables (GLVs, i.e. amaranth/spinach). These were analysed for metal/heavy metal (chromium, nickel, copper, arsenic, lead, magnesium, calcium, aluminium, manganese, iron, zinc, barium, cadmium, mercury, and uranium) content using standard procedures. The total heavy metal intake was calculated as a sum of the intake from each food source. The daily dietary intake was compared to safe intake levels (from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies and National Institute of Nutrition). The intake was higher than safe levels for lead, chromium, and manganese. It is advisable to reduce heavy metal exposure by adopting agricultural practices and public health interventions in terms of diet.