Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure
Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4 e4.7 ng L1) and PFBS (ons among PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Concentrations and trends in groundwater were generally similar to those observed in surface water suggesting the aquifer was contaminated by wastewater receiving river water. Daily PFAS exposure intakes through drinking water were below safety thresholds for oral non-cancer risk in all age groups.?