Next generation applications of lignin derived commodity products, their life cycle, techno-economics and societal analysis

Chauhan Prakram Singh, Agrawal Ruchi, Satlewal Alok, Kumar Ravindra, Gupta Ravi P., Ramakumar S.S.V.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Vol. 197: 179-200p.

The pulp and biorefining industries produce their waste as lignin, which is one of the most abundant renewable resources. So far, lignin has been remained severely underutilized and generally burnt in a boiler as a low-value fuel. To demonstrate lignin’s potential as a value-added product, we will review market opportunities for lignin related applications by utilizing the thermo-chemical/biological depolymerization strategies (with or without catalysts) and their comparative evaluation. The application of lignin and its derived aromatics in various sectors such as cement industry, bitumen modifier, energy materials, agriculture, nanocomposite, biomedical, H2 source, biosensor and bioimaging have been summarized. This comprehensive review article also highlights the technical, economic, environmental, and socio-economic variable that affect the market value of lignin-derived byproducts. The review shows the importance of lignin, and its derived products are a platform for future bioeconomy and sustainability. 

Lignin valorization
Thermochemical conversion