Research Papers

Benchmarking sustainability using indicators: An Indian case study

Kwatra Swati, Kumar Archna,Sharma Prateek, Sharma Sumit, Singhal Shaleen

This paper develops an index to measure sustainability based on the broad themes of social, economy and environment. Nineteen appropriate indicators were selected based on relevance, data availability, and periodicity for each leg of sustainable development. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess relationships between the 19 indicators representing different parameters under the three themes. These parameters were then normalized using Z-score technique. The Z -scores computed for each of these parameters were then used to develop a Sustainable Development Index (SDI).

Changes in oil content and fatty acid composition in Jatropha curcas during seed development

Sinha Pratima, Islam Md Aminul, Negi Madan Singh, Tripathi Shashi Bhushan

Seed development in Jatropha curcas L. was studied with respect to morphology, oil content and lipid profiles. Seeds were collected at 8 different stages of development starting from 6 days after pollination till maturity. Seed oil content increased from 6.15% to 35.86%. Palmitic acid (16:0) decreased from 34.27- 15.62, whereas linolenic acid (18:3) reduced from 26.32 to 0.65%. A sharp increase in oleic acid (18:1) content from 8.05 to 29.56% was observed at stage 5 which increased further to 44.38% at maturity.

Chitosan–nanohydroxyapatite composites: Mechanical, thermal and bio-compatibility studies

Roy Pratik , Sailaja R R N

Bionanocomposites of chitosan were prepared with nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as coupling agent. The tensile and flexural properties for 8% nHA loading showed optimal values. Compressive modulus also considerably increased from 525.16 MPa (0% nHA) to 1326.5 MPa with 10% nHA. Surface functionalization of fillers along with the addition of HEMA as coupling agent led to enhanced mechanical properties similar to human bone.

Commingled nanocomposites of LDPE/PP/Nylon 6/EPDM reinforced with MWCNT and Kenaf Fiber with enhanced mechanical, thermal and flammability characteristics

Khan M Ameen , Kumar S Satish , Raghu T S, Kotresh T M, Sailaja R R N

Multicomponent commingled composites comprised of LDPE, PP, Nylon 6 and EPDM have been prepared using a mixture of two epoxy functionalized polyolefins as compatibilizers to enhance interfacial interactions. Kenaf fiber has also been added for reinforcement along with Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The mechanical and thermal properties for the nancomposites have been determined and assessed using predictive theories. The flammability characteristics for the nanocomposites were also assessed.

Corporate Social Responsibility in India: Revisiting Carroll’s Pyramid and The Road Ahead

Mahajan Ritika

Section 135 of the recently implemented Indian Companies Act, 2013 made Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) mandatory for a certain category of companies in India but a debate on pros and cons of mandatory CSR is still going on. Significant issues in this debate are definition, scope and legitimacy of CSR. The existing definitions of CSR in the literature are congruent to a large extent but there is no universally acceptable definition.

Covalently Immobilized Laccase for Decolourization of Glucose-Glycine Maillard Products as Colourant of Distillery Wastewater

Singh Nimisha, Basu Subhankar, Vankelecom Ivo F J, Balakrishnan Malini

Maillard reaction products like melanoidins are recalcitrant, high-molecular-weight compounds responsible for colour in sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater. Conventional biological treatment is unable to break down melanoidins, but extracellular laccase and manganese peroxidase of microbial origin can degrade these complex molecules. In this work, laccase was covalently immobilized on alumina pellets activated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The immobilization yield was 50–60 %, and the enzyme activity (886 U/L) was 5-fold higher compared to the soluble enzyme (176 U/L).

Degradation of chlorpyrifos in tropical rice soils

Das Subhasis, Adhya Tapan K

Chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) phosphorothioate] is used worldwide as an agricultural insecticide against a broad spectrum of insect pests of economically important crops including rice, and soil application to control termites. The insecticide mostly undergoes hydrolysis to diethyl thiophosphoric acid (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), and negligible amounts of other intermediate products.

Demand Side management in Indian Power Utilities

Sundararaghavan Sandhya, Ramanathan K

Electric utilities in India are today looking at demand side manage men I as an important and integral strategy for addressing the challenges of chronic peak and energy shortages, improving access and affordability of power. At the governmental level, a number of policy and regulatory initiatives have been taken in this regard in recent years. The utilities are being mandated to draw up cost-effective demand side management action plans and programs and prioritize them as per their specific needs. In this context, the utilities are looking for accelerated deployment, of energy efficien t.

Development of a microbial process for methane generation from bituminous coal at thermophilic conditions

Rathi Rohit, Priya Anchal, Vohra Mustafa, Lavania Meeta, Lal Banwari, Sarma Priyangshu M

There has been a growing interest in coal bed methane (CBM) both for energy production and reduction of greenhouse gases. CBM has been used as an alternative fossil resource and methane generation from coal reservoirs and is contributing in meeting clean energy demand. India has CBM generating potential but lacks in technology for in situ biogenic methane generation from its coal reservoirs.

Development of Novel Microsatellite Markers in Jatropha curcas and Evaluation of Their Cross-Species Transferability

Sinha Pratima, Islam Md Aminul, Negi Madan Singh, Tripathi Shashi Bhushan

Jatropha curcas has been a species of interest all over the world due to its potential as a renewable biodiesel crop. In the present paper, a set of 40 novel genomic microsatellites from Jatropha developed through cloning and sequencing are reported. The microsatellite markers were evaluated at intra-specific, inter-specific and intergeneric levels. All forty markers successfully amplified fragments from J. curcas and J. integerrima showing their potential in linkage mapping using inter-specific breeding populations involving these species.