Test of Airflow in a Mono-directional Wind-catcher for various Wind Conditions using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Devadutt S, Habeeb R
Wind-catchers are one of the most extensively used passive technologies in history of arid climatic regions, engaged to supplement airflow and maintain indoor comfort ventilation. It was meant to catch the air flow high above the ground, which is greater in speed compared to the flow at lower levels due to ground conditions. This study aims to analyse wind-catchers with respect to different speeds and its orientation to prevailing winds for effective airflow.
The Evaluation of Two-stage Chemical Fractionation for the Enhanced Enzymatic Saccharification of Cellulose in Rice Straw
Banerji A, Kurian J, Kishore V V N and Balakrishnan M
Rice straw, an agro-residue, can be utilized as a renewable resource for the production of fuel and chemicals. This study evaluates a two-stage chemical pretreatment (dilute acid hydrolysis followed by alkaline-peroxide delignification) for fractionation and enhancing the enzymatic saccharification of the rice straw cellulose to produce fermentable sugars. The process led to 100% hemicellulose dissolution and resulted in a solid residue with ~95% pure cellulose. Enzymatic saccharification of this cellulose liberates 70% more reducing sugars compared to other single-step pretreatment methods.
Palit D, Sovacoolb B K, Cooperb C, Zoppob D, Eidsnessb J, Craftonb M, Johnsonb K, Clarkeb S
The Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) launched the Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) in 2004 but discontinued it during the 12th Five Year Plan, starting in 2012, after a series of unexpected challenges. Planners structured the program so that a village energy committee (VEC) ran a decentralized village program involving biomass gasifiers, straight vegetable oil (SVO) systems, biogas plants, and improved cookstoves. This suite of technologies was intended to produce electricity and thermal energy to meet the total energy requirements of rural communities.
Transition of Digital library in a web enabled environment: from Semantic to Social Semantic Digital library
Alam Nihal, Karmakar Ranjan
Library is a primary source of information throughout the history of mankind and is present in our societies in different forms. Notably, the traditional digital libraries have taken the shape of semantic digital libraries, which gives a more meaningful search and can be accessible anywhere at any point of time. Now it is time to re-examine the role of digital libraries within a new paradigm of library service. This paper will identify how it influences professional’s information needs and use of resources to meet those needs by different forms of Digital libraries in a web environment.
Narayanan P, Basistha A, Sarkar S, Sachdeva K
Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall over different seasons influence physical, social and economic parameters. Pre-monsoon (March, April and May - MAM) rainfall over the country is highly variable. Since heat lows and convective rainfall in MAM have an impact on the intensity of the ensuing monsoons, hence the pre-monsoon period was chosen for the study. The pre-whitened Mann Kendall test was used to explore presence of rainfall trend during MAM. The results indicate presence of significant (at 10% level) increasing trend in two stations (Ajmer, Bikaner).
Gopal L, Nagaraju Y
Children in government schools in Karnataka, India are provided cooked mid-day meals under the 'Akshara Dasoha' scheme. The aim of this initiative is to provide a nutritious meal to school children (who mostly hail from the lower economic strata) to enhance their nutritional status and as an incentive to minimize dropouts. However, cooking these meals have numerous bottlenecks including irregular supply of cooking fuel i.e.
Construction sector accounts for about 25% of the carbon emissions in India. With constant increase in the rate of construction, it is important that the sector identifies and applies sustainable construction and production practices. The sustainability index (SI) of building materials created as part of the study in the Himalayan region of South Asia will help create low-cost, climate resilient structures based on local climate and available resources. This implies customization as per regional needs when scaling up in other topographies.
Traditional uses of the wild plants by the tribal communities of Jawhar, Palghar, Maharashtra, India
Lele Yatish A, Thorve Bhargavi Arun, Tomar Swati, Parasnis Anjali
The tribal communities have been largely dependent on the wild plants for various purposes such as food, medicine, timber and so on. Several studies have documented this traditional knowledge about wild plants, but mostly related to its dietary and medicinal aspect. The other uses of these wild plants are somewhat ignored and have not been documented so far. This made it necessary to document the traditional knowledge of the wild plants used for purposes other than food and medicine. The study was conducted in the tribal areas of Jawhar block, Palghar district, Maharashtra.
Study on heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils and vegetables grown in the Delhi segment of Yamuna river basin, Global Health Perspectives
Sehgal Meena, Suresh R, Sharma Ved Prakash, Gautam Sumit Kumar
The treated or untreated industrial wastewaters from different sources are discharged into Yamuna river. The river water, when used for irrigation or during flood, introduces these contaminants including heavy metals to the agricultural soils of the cultivated area in flood plain of Yamuna. Subsequently, these metals are transported from soils to the edible parts of grown crop resulting into accumulation in local communities.
Variation in air quality at Filling Stations, Delhi, India, International Journal of Environmental Studies
Sehgal, M, Suresh R, Sharma VP, and Gautam SK
The air was monitored for two consecutive periods, in the dry and the rainy seasons (2009–2010) at 40 petroleum-filling stations in the Indian capital, Delhi, to assess variations in carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, PM10, PM2.5, benzene, toluene and xylene content. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the national ambient air quality standards at all the monitoring locations with maximum values of 1105 and 625 micro gm_3, respectively, in the dry season.