Research Papers

Respiratory signs and symptoms of a rural subpopulation in India: What do they tell us?

Sehgal Meena, Gautam Sumit Kumar, Gaine Tanushree, Manna Sayak, Bhattacharjee Samresh, Krishnan Anand

The study estimated the prevalence of chronic respiratory conditions among the cooks exposed to the burning of solid biomass cooking fuel. Questionnaire-based survey and lung function tests were administered to capture the self-reported respiratory health symptoms and lung health respectively. The estimated prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 3.14%,4.84%, 7.09%, 10.91% for 26–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65 years age group respectively.

Rural electricity access in India in retrospect: A critical rumination

Palit Debajit, Bandyopadhyay Kaushik Ranjan

Despite the large-scale efforts towards electrification in India since the time of independence, approximately 45 million households still continue to be without electricity access. This paper critically analyses the evolution of the process of rural electrification in India, the factors that potentially determine the household electricity access and juxtaposed that with the policies adopted over three distinct time periods: the pre-independence period; the period of state ownership and the post-reforms period.

Solar-Based Decentralized Energy Solution-A Case of Entrepreneur Based Model from Rural India

Banerjee Manjushree, Rehman I H , Tiwari Jitendra

In India one of every three rural households depends on kerosene based lighting systems that are characterized by low illumination and hazardous smoke. Given the existing and foreseeable gap between demand and supply, universal modern energy access can only be achieved in the short to medium term through a combination of grid and off-grid approaches. The paper presents a case study of solar photovoltaic based micro-grids (generating 75 W–1 kW) used to meet basic lighting requirements of 30 rural communities during peak demand hours (6–10 pm).

Synthesis and swelling characteristics of chitosan and CMC grafted sodium acrylate-co-acrylamide using modified nanoclay and examining its efficacy for removal of dyes

Nagarpita M.V., Roy Pratik, Shruthi S.B. , Sailaja R.R.N.

Chitosan/carboxy methyl chitosan (CMC) grafted sodium acrylate-co-acrylamide/nanoclay superabsorbent nanocomposites have been synthesized in this study by following conventional and microwave assisted grafting methods. Microwave assisted grafting method showed higher grafting yield with enhanced reaction rate. Effect of nanoclay on water adsorption and swelling behaviour of both the composites in acidic, neutral and alkaline medium has been studied. Results showed enhanced swelling rate and water adsorption of both composites after adding 5% of silane treated nanoclay.

The Challenges and Issues associated with the Promulgation of the Environmental Norms as Mandated by the MOEF&CC on 7th December 2015

Dube Shiv Kumar

The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change has notified the revised standards for coal-based Thermal Power Plants in the country, with the primary aim of minimizing pollution. These standards are proposed to be implemented in a phased manner. Thermal power plants are categorized into 3 categories, namely those:- (i) Installed before 31st December, 2003 (ii) Installed after 2003 upto 31st December, 2016 and (iii) Installed after 31st December, 2016.

Challenges Ahead: WTO and Food Security

Nanda Nitya

At the forthcoming World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Argentina, the global community must address real subsidies in agriculture rather than a theoretical construct on the measure of support that also includes impacts of subsidies in rich countries and the tariffs that are duly allowed.

Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum

Srivastava Shivani, Adholeya Alok, Conlan Xavier A, Cahill David M

Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential.

Agricultural Trade in South Asia: How important are the Trade Barriers?

Nanda Nitiya

Greater intra-regional trade in agricultural goods by reducing tariff and non-tariff barriers is often considered to be a good way of promoting rural development and improving food security in South Asia. Openness to trade of agricultural sector varies across South Asian countries, yet agricultural trade plays a crucial role as, in many countries, its share in exports is reasonably high, apart from the fact that most of them are net food-importing countries.

An overview on emerging bioelectrochemical systems (BESs): Technology for sustainable electricity, waste remediation, resource recovery, chemical production and beyond.

Bajracharya Suman, Sharma Mohita, Mohanakrishna Gunda, Dominguez Benneton Xochitl, Strik avid PBTB, Sarma Priyangshu, Pant Deepak

Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are unique systems capable of converting chemical energy into electrical energy (and vice-versa) while employing microbes as catalysts. Such organic wastes including low-strength wastewaters and lignocellulosic biomass were converted into electricity with microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Likewise, electrical energy was used to produce hydrogen in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) or other products including caustic and peroxide. BES were also designed to recover nutrients, metals or removal of recalcitrant compounds.

Approaches to low carbon development in China and India

Kedia Shailly

Low carbon development has gained policy prominence and is a concern of both environment and development policy globally and in China and India. This paper discusses the role of China and India as important global actors in light of development imperatives in the two countries. The article then looks at emerging approaches in the two countries related to financing, science, technology & innovation policy, and sub-national actions. The objective is to review efforts in China and India for contributing to learning experiences for other countries.