Causes, Human Health Impacts and Control of Harmful Algal Blooms: A Comprehensive Review
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly attracting attention all over the world. A diverse set of algal species including diatoms, flagellates, chrysophytes and dinoflagellates can cause harmful blooms, and many produce toxins that harm other organisms and human health. Intensive cyanobacterial blooms, in particular, have been associated with high costs for society due to their potential toxicity. Algal blooms can produce different toxins. These toxins present a long-standing threat to human and environmental health. For example, the severe Karenia bloom of 2005 in the eastern Gulf of Mexico demonstrates the complexities and magnitude of the challenges of managing algal blooms for both environmental and public health. With increasing events and severe impacts of algal blooms on human health, it becomes necessary to monitor and manage toxic algal blooms. Hence this paper presents a review of causes, impacts and control of algal blooms.