Penicillium: A Treasure Trove for Antimycobacterial and Antioxidant Metabolites

Kaur Mehak , Peshwani Hishita , Goel Mayurika
In the book Titled: Fungi Bioactive Metabolites. Springer, Singapore Editors: Deshmukh, S.K., Takahashi, J.A., Saxena, S. Pages: 479-506.

Penicillium, belonging to the phylum Ascomycota, is one of the most studied genera for its therapeutic properties. Based on ascocarps, it can be divided into two groups: Eupenicillium and Talaromyces. Bioactive secondary metabolites with antimicrobial, anticancer, antimycobacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, and biocontrol properties have been isolated from various species of this genus. The agricultural, biotechnological, and pharmaceutical applications of these metabolites are currently being investigated. This chapter highlights the potential of antimycobacterial, and antioxidant compounds isolated from Penicillium spp., including alkaloids, chromones, penicillanic acids, polyketides, steroids, terpenoids, and their derivatives. Biotechnological interventions, such as cocultivation, epigenetics, and genetic engineering, applied to enhance bioactivities, are elaborated. Furthermore, biologically synthesized metallic nanoparticles to augment the production of such metabolites in the genus would also be discussed.