Page 6 - Breathing Cleaner Air - Ten Scalable Solutions for Indian Cities
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Clean Air Mission for India - Ten Solutions 2

2. Transport: Switch to low sulphur fuel (10 ppm) and energy. Business models focussing on the economic
implement Bharat VI (similar to Euro VI) standards viability of this strategy are required.
for engine emissions which require tail-pipe
controls like diesel particulate filters for PM and 6. Agriculture: Convert agriculture residues and farm
selective catalytic reduction for NOx. This will also manure to electricity for rural power and biomass
call for engine optimization and technologies like pellets for women who depend on biomass stoves.
exhaust gas recirculation. The Government of India This strategy aims at developing and customizing
has already announced these norms and timely gasification technologies for converting agricultural
implementation of these norms will be important. waste into useful energy. Solutions 5 and 6 will
We further recommend that legacy vehicles that eliminate black and organic carbon particles from
are still in use are retrofitted with these control open fires and reduce ozone formation by cutting
technologies. This solution will cut down soot (black methane, VOCs and CO emissions.
carbon) emissions by up to 90% and drastically
reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx which is a main 7. Power and other Industry: Adopt cleaner
precursor for ozone formation), carbon monoxide and efficient production technologies such as
(CO), and hydrocarbon emissions. supercritical technologies in power sector, vertical
shaft kilns, hoffman kilns, and tunnel kilns for
3. Transport: Shift freight transport from road brick manufacturing. For urban households, it is
to lower-emission modes such as rail, inland recomended to improve energy efficiency of room
waterways, and coastal shipping. The Government air conditioners. This solution will reduce emissions
of India places great emphasis on developing rail- that produce sulphates, nitrates, and black carbon.
based and inland waterways freight transport and
efforts need to be scaled up. This involves several 8. Power and other Industry: Deploy National
auxiliary measures as detailed in the subsequent Emission Trading Schemes (ETS) with cap and
section on solutions. It is relevant to point out that trade for power generation and other large
Solutions 2 and 3 will mitigate emissions of primary polluting industries. The government is already
particles, such as black and organic carbon, and toxic experimenting with ETS in three industrial clusters in
gases such as NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra, which needs
to be scaled up.
4. Residential: Provide cleaner fuels (LPG, Electricity)
and biomass stoves with an efficiency of 50% or 9. Power and other Industry: Implement stringent
more and with a forced draft fan to those who emission standards to control gaseous pollutants
cannot afford LPG. This strategy calls for rapidly (NOx, SO2) and fine particulate (black carbon and
expanding the access to clean fuels (such as LPG; fly ash) emissions from both power plants and big
Electricity) to households reliant on solid fuels. industries. Solutions 7, 8, and 9 will reduce PM levels
For those who cannot afford LPG in the near term, due to reductions in sulphates, nitrates, fly ash, and
market access should be increased to biomass/ black carbon and will also mitigate ozone formation
biogas stoves that are compliant with emission rates through reduction of NOx.
recommended by the World Health Organization
(WHO, 2014). There is a need to adopt business 10. Dust and Waste: Implement wall-to-wall paving
models to reward women who mitigate emissions of streets and vacuum cleaning of roads; enforce
from traditional biomass stoves. This solution has ban on open burning of solid waste; manage waste
the potential to mitigate emissions of black carbon and recovery of methane from landfills. Dust and
and organic carbon particles by as much as 90% and waste burning are major sources of PM in cities and
CO2 emissions by more than 50%. Solution 10 will drastically cut their contributions to
city PM levels.
5. Agriculture: Develop business models for
collection, transport, and storage of agriculture Other than these ten solutions, India’s efforts to meet
residues and farm manure. This strategy aims at its Paris INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined
reducing open burning of agricultural residue, Contributions) will significantly reduce air pollution
instead, we recomend them to be used as a source of due to the nexus between air pollution mitigation and
climate mitigation. For example, India’s ambitious target
of 100GW power generation from solar energy by 2022
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