Clean combustion cook stove for domestic cooking applications

Clean combustion cook stove for domestic cooking applications

Woman cooking in TERI design stove

Four out of every five rural and one out of every five urban households in India primarily depend on direct burning of solid biomass fuel like fuel wood, crop residue and cattle dung in traditional mud stove/ three stone fire for cooking.

Such traditional cooking practice is characterized by incomplete combustion of biomass fuels resulting in emission of toxic smoke. Women (and accompanying children) who get exposed to this smoke every day during cooking food in a mud stove, particularly in poorly ventilated kitchens, face increased risk of pneumonia, respiratory diseases, etc. Kitchen smoke is responsible for half a million premature deaths in India annually. The toxic smoke also contains climate change agents like carbon monoxide and black carbon. Such traditional mud stoves also have low thermal efficiency (~17%) that results in high fuel consumption (~1 kg/person/day of firewood) thereby contributing to deforestation in some areas.

TERI Technology Innovation

TERI felt the need to utilize the forced draft (using fan to inject air into the combustion chamber) micro-gasification technology to develop an improved biomass cookstove. After two years of intensive research, field-testing and customization we have developed a single port metal stove that can cater to cooking requirements of a family of up to 7 members. Fuel wood, agriculture residue and cattle dung cake can be used as fuel for this stove. The power charger has dual charging mode (both AC/ grid power supply and solar power supply) to cater to households in unelectrified areas. Quality components have been used to make the stove performance long lasting. Stainless Steel has been used to fabricate the stove body and 11.1 V, 2.2 Ah Lithium Cobalt Oxide batteries has been used to power the fan.

Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IIT-D) (government approved test centre) has tested the stove and certified that it has passed all applicable government performance benchmarks. IIT-D has reported that the stove has high combustion efficiency thereby reducing particulate matter emission (per unit of energy delivered) and carbon monoxide by 72% and 80% respectively in comparison to a traditional mud stove. As it has high (~37%) thermal efficiency, the stove also reduces fuel consumption by 54% vis-à-vis mud stove that leads to lesser drudgery for women/ children in terms of fuel collection and processing. For users, there is also additional benefit of faster cooking and less blackening of vessels.

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India has approved the TERI stove technology and made it technically eligible for all government funded projects. One commercial manufacturer has already used our patent-pending design to manufacture and has sold more than 2,500 cookstoves. More manufacturers have shown interest to produce and market this TERI designed stove.

Advantages of SPT_0610 as compared to traditional mud stove/ three stone fires:

  • Less Fuel: 50% less consumption of fuel
    • Reduces drudgery of women collecting fuel wood
    • Reduced deforestation due to less consumption of fuel wood
  • Less Smoke: 70% reduction in smoke (particulate matter)
    • Beneficial in terms of reduced Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) and healthier environment for women and children
    • Reduces global warming due to reduction of black carbon and other warming agents
    • Less blackening of cooking pots and kitchen walls
  • Less Cooking Time: Reduces the cooking time by approximately half
    • Less exposure of women to kitchen smoke
    • More time for economic/ recreational activities
  • Local Fuel: Chopped locally available solid biomass used as fuel
    • The fuel required does not demand the establishment of separate fuel supply chains and facilitates local
    • Timely availability of cooking fuel.

COMPARISION SNAPSHOT

Performance Indicator Traditional Mud Stove Government of India Standard (Forced Draft) TERI SPT_0610 Design
Thermal Efficiency 17% 35% 37%
Carbon Monoxide Emission (gm per MJ delivered) 11 < = 5 2.25
Particular Matter Emissions (gm per MJ delivered) 518 < = 150 147

Posters encouraging clean and green boats were disseminated