Environment Status of Mumbai Metropolitan Region


The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) was established in 1975 to set up and promote MMR (Mumbai Metropolitan Region) as a destination for economic activity by boosting infrastructure development and improving the quality of life.

In order to integrate the concepts and strategies of sustainable development into the MMR’s 3rd Regional Plan 2014-34 (RP) developed by the Planning Department of MMRDA, TERI and MMRDA signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 2010 to work in collaboration on green buildings, transport, and environment. In view of this initiative, it was mutually decided to document the baseline status of various environmental resources and parameters. This included quantitative as well as qualitative status of water resources, land use land cover analysis, quality of air and its monitoring infrastructure, climate variability, issues pertaining to solid waste management, and so on. Hence, TERI proposed that MMRDA should document the Environment Status Report for the MMR so that the necessary recommendations and strategies could be incorporated in the RP 2014-34 Plan.

Introduction and Activities Conducted

The Environment Status Report of MMR has been developed as per the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-Status-Impact-Response) framework adopted by the European Environment Agency. It has also been endorsed by MPCB (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board). The actual development of the Environment Status Report began in August 2012. The report presents the status of the quality of various resources present in the region such as air, water, land use and land cover change, biodiversity, and so on.

The Environment Status Report of MMR has been developed by collecting secondary data and analyzing it as an indicator to depict the status of various resources under consideration.

During the process of compiling the ESR of MMR, the information and data was sourced from various government departments, agencies, research institutes in the form of reports, questionnaire surveys, personal correspondence, published papers, online literature reviews etc. TERI conducted stakeholder interviews and site visits, and also organized semi-structured interviews to gauge the perceptions of the stakeholders including government officials, climate dependent communities such as fisherwomen and farmers about the critical issue of climate variability. In the process, TERI also assessed their preparedness for combating the projected impacts of climate change as well as the status of resources in the MMR.

The data thus collected was compiled, coded, cleaned, and then analyzed. Many layers of GIS were also developed to present spatial analysis of the data and the information collected. The report discusses the growth in terms of population, economy, industrial units and infrastructure, which by and large are the driving forces of the region and build pressure on resources such as water, energy, and land. Further, the report presents in detail the status of (1) Air-Quality, (2) Water Resource, (3) Land Resource and a special section on (4) Climate Variability in MMR.

Duration: Project started in 2012 and ended in 2015.

Sponsor MMRDA (Mumbai Metropolitan region Development Authority)


  • To study and document the baseline information on the quality of environmental resources
  • To identify the infrastructural and institutional gaps in availability of data and environment-related monitoring.
  • To provide recommendations for MMRDA’s upcoming Regional Plan


  • First of its kind environment status report based on DPSIR framework for the entire Mumbai Metropolitan Region
  • Integration of physical data pertaining to the resources based on the GIS map provided by MRSAC (Maharashtra Remote Sensing Maharashtra Remote Sensing Applications Centre). This provided a unique opportunity to assess resources such as water and land through a different perspective.
  • Development of various GIS layers depicting environmental data and information at the MMR scale
  • Analysis of regional level climate variability based on the data recorded for more than 30 years
  • Comprehensive compilation of data sets from various agencies including around 18 ULBs (Urban Local Bodies), forest departments, more than four SPA’s (Special Planning Authorities), four District collectorates , two Zila Parishads and so on, for gauging qualitative and quantitative aspects of the environmental parameters
  • Recommendations for monitoring, managing, and maintaining resources which will be integrated in the upcoming Regional Plan of MMR
Posted on: 17 August 2016